About Blastocystis

Blastocystis is a highly prevalent single-celled parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.  It has become the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasitic infection in developed and many developing countries, and it will produce long-term diarrhea, abdominal pain, and other symptoms in healthy individuals.

BRF’s web site has written and audio descriptions from patients, information on the newest research in diagnosis and treatment of Blastocystis ’hominis’ infection, and information on BRF”s advocacy program.

High prevalence of parasitism in Moroccan children

Researchers working with children in Morocco report an overall prevalence of parasitic infection of 51%.  Of the children positive for parasites, the most common infection was Blastocystis (64%), followed by Giardia at 20% (24% in rural areas, 16% in urban).    Researchers noted three different assemblage types of Giarida infection in the study population.  Full text available at

Extra-intestinal Blastocystis infection of liver found in immunocompromised host

Russian researchers report on the extra-intestinal infection of an immunocompromised patient, noting that large quantities of Blastocystis organisms were found in the patient’s liver.  Examination of disintegrated portions of the patients liver showed the organism through staining.  The researchers report the patient made a full recovery following treatment with antibiotics and an antifungal drug, and note that physicians should be aware of the potential for disseminated Blastocystis infection in immunocompromised hosts.  Abstract available in Pubmed online.

Blastocystis infection identified in most food animals from India

A study of cecal scrapings from 24 broiler chickens, 4 turkeys, and 1 piglet showed organisms consistent with Blastocystis in most of the animals.  Specifically all of the chickens, 3 of the 4 turkeys, and the piglet showed infections, albeit in small numbers.  Researchers suggested that the infections may not have been the cause of death in the animals, since the organisms were present in low prevalence in scrapings.  Researchers suggested that the study suggested that there may be health significance in the transmission of Blastocystis from animals to humans.  Full text in the Journal of Parasitic Diseases.

 

Triple antibiotic therapy moderately successful in Blastocystis clearance, may provide some with symptomatic improvement

Researchers evaluating a triple-antibiotic therapy for treatment of Blastocystis infection report the results of a trial with 10 patients.  Blastocystis carriage was evaluated both by stool culture and RT-PCR Testing.  Of the 10 patients studied, 6 reported clearance at 6 weeks.  All patients (n=2) reporting dramatic clinical improvement (>4 points)  cleared the organism, and both were multiply infection with ST3 and ST4.  The remaining 4 patients who reported clearance had varying degrees of non-statistically significant improvement, while some of the patients who did not clear the organism also reported improvement.  A significant proportion of patients studied reported low IgA levels.  A full text of the study is available in Gut Pathogens.

Survey finds 93% of Nicaraguan children positive for at least one parasitic infection

Researchers studyng fecal samples collected at random from 382 children age 2-15 years report that 93% of the samples tested positive for at least one parasitic infection.  Females were more likely to present with multiple parasitic infections (85.4%, 326/382, p=0.001).  Rural background and age status (6-11) were also positively associated with infection probability, as were drinking river water.  Walking barefoot was positively associated with hookworm infection.  Abstract available at NIH Pubmed server.

Austrailian study reports Blastocystis infection more common in certain urban areas

Researchers used fecal samples and post code information from patients at four public hospitals in Sydney to determine that Blastocystis infection is more likely to occur in certain geographic regions.  A total of 910 records were examined for patients seen from 2007-2010, and 580 cases with post code data were examined.  Blastocystis was found in 57% of the samples, Giardia in 27%, and D. fragailis in 12%.  Age prevalnece decreased up to age 24, but increased from age 25 onward.  The full text text of the paper is available in the Journal of Public Health Research.

Where is Blastocystis? Cecal scrapings, but not duodenal scrapings, reliable for detection

Researchers studying Blastocystis isolated from animal cadavers in Channai, India report that scrapings from cecal sections, but not duodenal sections, are a reliable method for identifying Blastocystis infection.  Of 24 animals found positive for Blastocystis, cecal scrapings were positive in all cases, but duodenal scrapings were positive in only 6 cases.  The full text of the paper is available from the Journal of Parasitological Infections.

Blastocystis may be a complication in heart failure patients

Researchers at the National Taiwan University report on a case history of a 34-year old Filipino man who developed heart failure following heart valve surgery.  The heart failure was followed by persistent diarrhea and sepsis.  Infectious disease testing, which included testing for viruses, E. histolytica, and C. diff failed to identify any pathogen other than Blastocystis.  Symptoms resolved following treatment with metronidazole.  The paper was published in the International Journal of Surgical Case Reports.

 

Blastocystis really doesn’t act like a non-pathogenic yeast

Blastocystis has at times been called a non-pathogenic yeast, so researchers at the University of Singapore put that claim to the test, by comparing the response of Blastocystis to the intestinal yeast Saccharomyces Boulardi.  Their study reports that exposure of intestinal samples from mice to Blastocystis produces a significant amount of up-regulation of inflammatory chemicals, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α).  The study found that production of the inflammatory factors in macrophages was caused primarily by up-regulation of factor ERK in cells, as inhibition of ERK significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β.  Exposure of cells to Saccharomyces Boulardi did not produce that effect.  The study also examined experimental animal infection with Blastocystis sp. subtype 7 on mice, and found increased rate of inflammation, but that was not statistically significant [in contrast to earlier study by El-Wakil].  The researchers suggested that pre-treatment of mice with Dextran Sulfate, which was intended to emphasize potential Blastocystis pathology, may have negated the effect of Blastocystis.  The study was published in Infection and Immunity.

Blastocystis sp. subtype 5 common, not invasive in pigs

A study of Blastocystis in a commercial pig herd and an immunosuppressed research herd shows a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 5 in those groups.  The researchers report that this particular species is likely host-adapted to pigs.  Examination of intestinal biopsies from the pigs show no apparent signs of pathology or invasiveness, with Blastocystis cells appearing on the surface of the intestines in samples examples.  The study was published in PLOS-One.