An Australian team has used fecal IgA study to characterize the immune response of 233 pigs to Blastocystis antigens. The team reports that a majority of the pigs (81.5%) show fecal IgA reactivity against Blastocystis proteins of molecular weight 17.5-120kDa, but reactivity to a higher weight protein (>250kDa) was found in only 18.5% of the pigs. Immunosuppressed pigs and piglets were much more likely to show reactivity to the high molecular weight protein. The full free text of the paper is available from Parasite Immunology.
Fecal IgA reactivity to >250 kDa Blastocystis protein more common in immunosuppressed pigs, but no intestinal histopathology
Study of 275 Columbian children shows higher prevalence of diarrhea in children infected with Blastocystis
Columbian researchers studying 275 children attending under 5 attending day care centers in Calarca, Columbia report that children infected with Blastocystis had a significantly higher prevalence of diarrhea (OR=1.95, 95% CI, p < 0.05), with 45% of Blastocystis-positive children reporting diarrhea vs. 33% of Blastocystis-negative children. Etiological study suggested that Blastocystis infection may come from contamination of a sugar cane beverage, floors, or foods other than bottled milk. The full free text is available from Biomedica.
Multiplex DNA panel identifies many gastrointestinal pathogen not found in microscopy from pediatric patients returning from the tropics
Researchers in Switzerland studying 312 stool samples from pediatric patients returning from trips to the tropics report that conventional laboratory methods failed to identify most of the norovirus-positive and Giardia-positive samples identified by Luminex’s xTag gastrointestinal pathogen panel. The Luminex panel covers 15 diarrhea-causing organisms using PCR amplification. All adenovirus, rotavirus, C. diff, and Cryptosporidium samples were confirmed in external labs, but norovirus and Giarida positive samples were only idneitifes 40% and 29% of the time respectively. For more information, refer to the paper published in the journal Infection.
A report from a research team at the from the University of Queensland, Australia has identified Blastocystis infection in both the small and large intestines of pigs. By studying a total of 28 pigs infected with Blastocystis, the authors found that the primary types observed were Blastocystis sp. subtypes 3 and 1. The researchers suggested that pigs may provide suitable animals models for Blastocystis infection in humans. The full text of the study is available from PLOS-One.
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Researchers in Malaysia report high prevalence of parasitic infections in rural populations, lower prevalence in urban
A research team from Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine has reviewed findings of 101 studies conducted over 42 years (1970-2013). The team reports high levels of parasitism in rural populations, but a significant decline in urban populations over the time period. The full text of the study is available in Tropical Biomedicine.
A research team from the National University of Singapore reports that Blastocystis antigens stimulate the production of a variety of cytokines, such as 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in mouse intestinal explants, in mouse colitis colon, and in macrophages. Further investigation utilizing RAW264.7 murine macrophages showed that Blastocystis treatment in RAW264.7 macrophages induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38, the three major groups of mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that play essential roles in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ERK inhibition in macrophages significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β. For the full text of the study, refer to the journal Infection and Immunity
Researchers from Clermont Universite’ and the Pasteur Institut have published an updated review on Blastocystis infection, genotyping, and clinical characteristics, entitled, “Blastocystis, an unrecognized parasite: an overview of pathogenesis and diagnosis”. A full text of the review is available in Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Diseases
In a study of 200 shelter dogs and cats, and 100 client-owned dogs and cats, researchers from Oregon State University (Oregon, USA) report that roughly 10% of shelter dogs and cats carry Blastocystis, while none of the client owned animals were found to be infected. Dogs and cats infected with Blastocystis had similar reported rates of diarrhea as those not infected. The full text of the study is available from PLOS-One.
Researchers in Denmark report D. fragilis and Blastocystis prevalent in both IBS patients and healthy controls
Researchers in Denmark report that roughly 50% of healthy individuals were found to be parasitized with Blastocystis or D. fragilis. D. fragilis was detected in 35% of healthy controls vs. 23% of IBS patients, while Blastocystis was found in 22% of controls vs. 15% of IBS patients. Surprisingly, individuals who drank bottled water, had no animals in the house, or had a higher income were more likely to be infected with Blastocystis. For more information, refer to the NIH Pubmed abstract.